These bring to the fore some recurring themes, including the existence and nature of God, miracles and mysteries, the issue of Grace and predestination, sin, evil and theodicy as well as the afterlife. Whilst he believed in the overall correctness of their reforms, Leibniz regretted that his contemporaries had carried them too far by removing all final causes. In this manner, the universe unfolded rationally according to a predetermined and harmonious design, which yielded the most diversity combined with the greatest simplicity of laws. In it, no good action went unrewarded, no sin unpunished.
His inexorable faith in mankind and its progress was wedded to a deeply pragmatic bent whereby theoretical insights should always find practical applications.
2. Religion and the Individual
In this manner, far from dismissing imagination as inferior, for instance, Leibniz held that it could be harnessed for the greater good by steering passions toward piety. It is well known that martyrs have endured the most excruciating tortures for no other reason than that they had a vivid imagination of future pleasure, for it is impossible for us to resist pain or pleasure except by means of their opposites.
Crucially, in this selection of texts, Leibniz reveals his peculiar agility at juggling and dissolving opposing concepts — sin and good deed, change and immutability — as well as his unique skill for redefinition, one which he had no doubt honed during his early legal training. Final words: it was my task to make you, my hearers,. Here there are many details, quotations, which contain repetitions.
Paper 103 - The Reality of Religious Experience
I pass over all that. I note only the most important of that which affords some interest: the basis of morality is egoism Where does a new epoch in history begin? Only wherever an oppressed mass or major- ity makes its well-justified egoism effec- tive against the exclusive egoism of a na- tion or caste, wherever classes of men sic! So, too, the egoism of the now oppressed majority of mankind must and will obtain its rights and found a new epoch in history.
It is not that the aristoc-. Examples from the classics of the use of the words God and nature without dis- tinction. The Ego and the non-. Ego are inseparably connected in man. And the metaphysical God is nothing but the compendium, the total- ity of the most general properties extracted from nature, which, however, man by means of the force of imagination—and indeed in just this separation from sen- suous being, matter, nature—reconverts into an independent subject or being.
Knowledge of the essential, inextinguishable difference between thought and life or reality is the beginning of all wisdom in thinking and living. Only the distinc- tion is here the true connection. Feuerbach was published in In this work, Feuerbach takes a firm materialist position in philosophy. II, Moscow, , pp. Lenin, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, Moscow, , pp. Chernyshevsky pp. Regarding the significance of this book, see V. Lenin, pres. Werke, Bd. The anthropological principle was directed against religion and idealism.
However, by considering man apart from the concrete historical and social relations, the anthropological principle leads to idealism in the understanding of the laws of historical development. Chernyshevsky, Selected Philosophical Essays, Moscow, , pp.
These lectures were delivered from 1. V , and the preface to the book is dated 1. Both the anthropological principle and naturalism are only inexact, weak descriptions of materialism. Incidentally, p. NB Par. Quo- tations, and again quotations, to confirm what Feuerbach has already said. Feuerbach did not understand the revolution.
Feuerbach: Love & Atheism | Issue 85 | Philosophy Now
Man experiences matter in his mind; he experiences spiritual reality in the soul but becomes conscious of this experience in his mind. The intellect is the harmonizer and the ever-present conditioner and qualifier of the sum total of mortal experience. Both energy-things and spirit values are colored by their interpretation through the mind media of consciousness. Your difficulty in arriving at a more harmonious co-ordination between science and religion is due to your utter ignorance of the intervening domain of the morontia world of things and beings.
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The local universe consists of three degrees, or stages, of reality manifestation: matter, morontia, and spirit. The morontia angle of approach erases all divergence between the findings of the physical sciences and the functioning of the spirit of religion. Reason is the understanding technique of the sciences; faith is the insight technique of religion; mota is the technique of the morontia level.
Mota is a supermaterial reality sensitivity which is beginning to compensate incomplete growth, having for its substance knowledge-reason and for its essence faith-insight. Mota is a superphilosophical reconciliation of divergent reality perception which is nonattainable by material personalities; it is predicated, in part, on the experience of having survived the material life of the flesh.
But human metaphysics has proved more confusing than illuminating. Metaphysics has proved a failure; mota, man cannot perceive. Revelation is the only technique which can compensate for the absence of the truth sensitivity of mota in a material world. Revelation authoritatively clarifies the muddle of reason-developed metaphysics on an evolutionary sphere. Early man did not differentiate between the energy level and the spirit level.
It was the violet race and their Andite successors who first attempted to divorce the mathematical from the volitional. Increasingly has civilized man followed in the footsteps of the earliest Greeks and the Sumerians who distinguished between the inanimate and the animate. And as civilization progresses, philosophy will have to bridge ever-widening gulfs between the spirit concept and the energy concept. But in the time of space these divergencies are at one in the Supreme. Science must always be grounded in reason, although imagination and conjecture are helpful in the extension of its borders.
Religion is forever dependent on faith, albeit reason is a stabilizing influence and a helpful handmaid. And always there have been, and ever will be, misleading interpretations of the phenomena of both the natural and the spiritual worlds, sciences and religions falsely so called.
Out of his incomplete grasp of science, his faint hold upon religion, and his abortive attempts at metaphysics, man has attempted to construct his formulations of philosophy. And modern man would indeed build a worthy and engaging philosophy of himself and his universe were it not for the breakdown of his all-important and indispensable metaphysical connection between the worlds of matter and spirit, the failure of metaphysics to bridge the morontia gulf between the physical and the spiritual.
Mortal man lacks the concept of morontia mind and material; and revelation is the only technique for atoning for this deficiency in the conceptual data which man so urgently needs in order to construct a logical philosophy of the universe and to arrive at a satisfying understanding of his sure and settled place in that universe.
Faith and reason, unaided by mota, cannot conceive and construct a logical universe. Without the insight of mota, mortal man cannot discern goodness, love, and truth in the phenomena of the material world. When the philosophy of man leans heavily toward the world of matter, it becomes rationalistic or naturalistic.
When philosophy inclines particularly toward the spiritual level, it becomes idealistic or even mystical. When philosophy is so unfortunate as to lean upon metaphysics, it unfailingly becomes skeptical, confused. Philosophy dare not project its interpretations of reality in the linear fashion of logic; it must never fail to reckon with the elliptic symmetry of reality and with the essential curvature of all relation concepts.
The highest attainable philosophy of mortal man must be logically based on the reason of science, the faith of religion, and the truth insight afforded by revelation. By this union man can compensate somewhat for his failure to develop an adequate metaphysics and for his inability to comprehend the mota of the morontia. Science is sustained by reason, religion by faith. Faith, though not predicated on reason, is reasonable; though independent of logic, it is nonetheless encouraged by sound logic.
Faith cannot be nourished even by an ideal philosophy; indeed, it is, with science, the very source of such a philosophy. Faith, human religious insight, can be surely instructed only by revelation, can be surely elevated only by personal mortal experience with the spiritual Adjuster presence of the God who is spirit. True salvation is the technique of the divine evolution of the mortal mind from matter identification through the realms of morontia liaison to the high universe status of spiritual correlation.
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