MARK S. AND C. DALE R. J OHN H. NEIL R. CARL G. KANE, M. JOHN D. MAX B. JOHN B. HUEY P. ALAN E.
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See C. Wertham insisted upon appearing before the committee. He first presented a long list of his credentials, and then, in his clipped German accent, spoke with authority on the pernicious influence of comic books upon children. His passionate testimony at the hearings impressed the gathering. Kefauver suggested crime comics indoctrinated children in a way similar to Nazi propaganda. Wertham noted Hitler was a beginner compared to the comics industry.
Publisher William Gaines appeared before the committee and vigorously defended his product and the industry.
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He took full responsibility for the horror genre, claiming he was the first to publish such comics. He insisted that delinquency was the result of the real environment and not fictional reading materials. His defiant demeanor left the committee which felt the industry was indefensible , astonished.
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Wertham as it would be to explain the sublimity of love to a frigid old maid. Though the committee's final report did not blame comics for crime, it recommended that the comics industry tone down its content voluntarily.
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By , nearly a quarter of all comic books published were horror titles. The Code had many stipulations that made it difficult for horror comics to continue publication, since any that didn't adhere to the Code's guidelines would likely not find distribution. The Code forbade the explicit presentation of "unique details and methods of crime Scenes of excessive violence Scenes dealing with, or instruments associated with walking dead, or torture".
As a result of the Congressional hearings, DC Comics shifted its ongoing horror titles, House of Mystery — and House of Secrets — , toward the suspense and mystery genres, often with a science fiction bent. Similarly, during this period Marvel Comics produced the titles Strange Tales — and Journey into Mystery — The publishers Gilberton , Dell Comics , and Gold Key Comics did not become signatories to the Comics Code, relying on their reputations as publishers of wholesome comic books.
Dell began publishing the licensed TV series comic book Twilight Zone in and publishing a Dracula title in though only the first issue was horror related; the subsequent issues were part of the super-hero genre revival , followed in by the new series "Ghost Stories. Warren Publishing continued the horror tradition in the mids, bypassing the Comics Code Authority restrictions by publishing magazine-sized black-and-white horror comics. The low-rent Warren imitator Eerie Publications also jumped into the black-and-white horror magazine business, mixing new material with reprints from pre- Comics Code horror comics, most notably in its flagship title Weird — , as well as the magazines Tales of Voodoo — , Horror Tales — , Tales from the Tomb — , and Terror Tales — Stanley Publications also published a line of black-and-white horror magazines from —, including the titles Shock and Chilling Tales of Horror.
In , the Comics Code Authority relaxed some of its longstanding rules regarding horror comics, which opened the door to more possibilities in the genre:. Following this, Marvel returned to publishing true horror by first introducing a scientifically created, vampire-like character, Morbius, the Living Vampire ,  followed by the introduction of Dracula in Tomb of Dracula. This opened the floodgates for more horror titles, such as the anthology Supernatural Thrillers , Werewolf by Night , and two series in which Satan or a Satan-like lord of Hell figured, Ghost Rider and the feature " Son of Satan.
Additionally, Skywald Publications offered the black-and-white horror-comics magazines Nightmare , Psycho , and Scream. Underground cartoonists , many of them strongly influenced by s EC Comics like Tales from the Crypt ,  also tried their hands at horror. By the mids, the horror comics boomlet slowed and various titles were cancelled. Only a few DC titles persevered by the end of the decade, the long-running Gold Key mystery comic series ceased during the early s, and predominantly reprint Charlton series managed to survive past mid-decade. DC's traditional titles sputtered out during the early s, and its transformed anthology "Elvira's House of Mystery" was the final title to be produced, lasting only a dozen issues.
As these and Warren publications disappeared, new titles from the s onward would all be in new formats i. Beginning in the late s and early s, independent publishers produced a number of successful horror comics franchises. FantaCo Enterprises and Millennium Publications boasted lineups almost exclusively devoted to horror, vampire, and zombie comics.
Bissette , who also contributed stories to each issue. Bissette also edited the acclaimed anthology Taboo , which ran from to In , Pacific Comics produced two series that, while admittedly inspired by the EC Comics of the s, foresaw the form that horror comics would take in the coming decades. Printed in color on high-quality paper stock despite a higher cover price, the series Twisted Tales and Alien Worlds were short-lived and hard-pressed to keep to a regular production schedule, but offered some of the most explicitly brutal and sexual stories yet to be widely distributed in a mainstream "non-underground" format.
Elvira's House of Mystery.
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In , DC Comics revived the Swamp Thing series, attempting to capitalize on the summer release of the Wes Craven film of the same name. In , Briton Alan Moore took over the writing chores on the title, and when Karen Berger became editor, she gave Moore free rein to revamp the title and the character as he saw fit. Moore reconfigured Swamp Thing's origin to make him a true monster as opposed to a human transformed into a monster. Moore's and artists Stephen R.
Bissette and John Totleben 's Swamp Thing was a critical and commercial success, and in spun off the ongoing series Hellblazer , starring occult detective John Constantine. In DC introduced its mature-readers Vertigo line, which folded in a number of popular horror titles, including Hellblazer and Swamp Thing. One of Vertigo's early successes was Neil Gaiman 's Sandman , which reworked a number of DC's old horror characters and added fantasy to the mix. In the mids Harris Publications also revived Vampirella , and Marvel, after mostly taking the '80s off, published its " Midnight Sons " line of horror comics that included such series as a revived Ghost Rider , Nightstalkers , Darkhold: Pages from the Book of Sins and Midnight Sons Unlimited.
In addition to its long-running titles carried over from the s, Vertigo published more conventional horror, like vampires in Bite Club beginning in ,  and Vamps. In addition, from — they published their own horror anthology , Flinch. Steve Niles predominantly writes horror comics, and his 30 Days of Night has spawned a range of mini-series released by IDW Publishing. In the s and s, Marvel produced Blade and the Marvel Zombies franchise.
Marvel's adult imprint MAX , introduced in , has also provided a venue for reinterpretations of Marvel horror characters where more violence can be used, leading to the Dead of Night miniseries based on Devil-Slayer ,   Werewolf by Night  and Man-Thing ,  as well as a reworking of Zombie  and Hellstorm: Son of Satan.
This led to protests similar to those in the States. In , the Children and Young Persons Harmful Publications Act was introduced, which led to the horror reprints disappearing from news agents ' shelves.
In the early s there were a couple of horror comics — IPC 's Shiver and Shake and Monster Fun — but these were also humour titles pitched at younger children. Whether it was because of fears over the content, or the difficult financial times in the mids, Scream!
After the comic industry bust in the mid s, the only mainstream venue was AD , which featured stories like Chiaroscuro and Cradlegrave , as well as those drawing on the Cthulhu Mythos , like Necronauts and Caballistics, Inc. The British small press also publishes horror comics, like the anthology Something Wicked. Italian horror comic series Dylan Dog has achieved great success, both in its homeland and abroad. From the late s till the s, Italy also saw a number of erotic-horror publications usually featuring heroines, such as Jacula , Sukia , Yra all vampiresses , Ulula a werewoman and others.
The subculture also continued publishing horror manga. Suehiro Maruo followed the traditions of the Ero guro movement of the s and included extreme depictions of gore in his works.
Horror stayed a niche in mainstream manga. Similar publications like Horror M Bunkasha , also mainly targeted at women , started to appear. Magazines like Nemuki Asahi Sonorama , Susperia Mystery Akita Shoten and Apple Mystery Shufu to Seikatsusha were also founded as part of this movement, but concentrated on more subtle and less graphic depictions of horror.
Horror comics are also published on the web, with horror webcomics that include the pioneering work of Eric Monster Millikin , an anthology webtoon , Tales of the Unusual and Zuda comics High Moon. Comics have formed part of the media franchise for popular horror movies like Texas Chainsaw Massacre , Friday the 13th , Halloween and Army of Darkness. They have also been adapted from horror video games , like Silent Hill.
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